Buckle fractures - also known as torus fractures - are a common type of injury, particularly among children. They are caused by excess pressure on the shaft of a long bone. For example, putting a hand out to stop a fall causes an axial loading on the bone, causing it to snap under the pressure. Buckle fractures require time to heal but very rarely need operations to set right, unless the angle of the break is severe. They are identified by the bulging of the cortex and are common amongst children because of the elasticity of their bones.